The Great English Vowel Shift
This may have been precipitated by British Belgae support for their mainland allies. The initial landing at Dubra Dover was hard fought with support from ship-mounted catapults needed to gain a foothold. A truce followed and the Romans stayed for only three weeks before embarking for Gaul. By July of 54BC the Romans were back, in force! They carved their way inland pushing aside the resistance of Cassivellanus and his nobles who turned their attention to the fortified Roman camp but to little avail.
Finally Caesar accepted the submission of the Britons and once again sailed back to Gaul. The Romans would not return to Britain for over 90 years but when they did it would be for three and a half centuries. With these calculations offering good odds he launched a series of attacks on Roman winter quarters across northern Gaul, managing to trick one garrison into ambush and besieging several others. The Roman commander at one camp sent word to Caesar who immediately advanced upon the 60, besiegers; the Roman relief force numbered 7,!
In what was to become standard Roman tactical response to rebellion Caesar took the initiative, bullied Ambiorix into an ill planned assault, hit the Nervii on the counter and routed them. By the next campaign season Caesar stood at the head of 10 Legions, he crushed the Belgic uprising and then did another tour of Germany for good measure. While the main Roman forces were in northern Gaul and Caesar saw to his affairs in Italy the last and most able of his Gallic opponents stepped into the fray, Vercingetorix chieftain of the Averni.
This leader was very different from those before him, he gathered his warriors and trained them, selecting them for different duties, seeking the most able, organising a corp of archers and generally acting in a most unbarbarian like way! Caesar naturally leapt into action and set off north on a tortuous and dangerous trek to join up with his Legions. He took the city of Cenabum first, where the rebellion had started and then aimed his Legions at the heartland of Vercingetorix.
Capturing town after town the Romans drove the Gallic forces before them, unusually they harassed the Romans and denied them supplies which gave Caesar much cause for concern but did not stop him arriving outside the Averni capital of Gergovia in April 52BC. Now things started going against Caesar, his troops were hungry, the previously allied tribes went into open revolt and when he ordered a full scale assault on Gorgovia it was repulsed with heavy losses he could ill afford. He called for reinforcements from his subordinate Labienus who marched south to rendezvous with his commander.
The armies united south of the Seine and attempted to retreat into the Romanised Provincial area of Gaul. But Vercingetorix was waiting. With 80, foot and 15, horse this Gallic army was the best ever assembled yet in July 52BC when they met the Romans at Vingeanne there was only an indecisive cavalry skirmish before the Gauls withdrew in good order to a fortified hilltop town named Alesia.
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Again Caesar maintained the strategic initiative and against all the odds pursued and caught the Gauls as they were still outside the city walls. He drove them inside the walls and then settled down to one of the greatest sieges in military history. Not only did the Romans completely surround Alesia with siegeworks but they had to build an outer fortification to protect themselves from the huge , warriors Gallic force that arrived relieve Vercingetorix.
The fortifications were both over 14 miles in circumference and included forts, specially constructed towers and slopes with spiked defences.
Roman Withdrawal from Britain in the Fifth Century
The Gallic relief force launched three huge assaults all of which were beaten off with heavy losses to both sides, the defenders in Alesia began to starve and a final battle seemed inevitable. He is finally executed thus ending the Gallic revolts that have raged for nearly a decade. Caesar now had the most battle hardened Legions in the Roman Empire, he would lead them across the Rubicon into history and they would fight in the titanic internecine wars that would wrack the Empire for centuries.
Cleopatra and Marc Anthony would come and go, Pompey would be defeated, a short lived Dictatorship would be his followed by 10 years and then a lifetime invitation to be the saviour of Rome. Yet, apart from his murder on March 15th 44BC, Caesar will always be remembered mostly as the great commander in Gaul fighting against hordes of savage barbarians at the head of his mighty Legions.
While the armies of Marius and Caesar are relatively simple affairs that rely on Legionaries for their mainstay there were numerous colourful auxiliary troops available in varying numbers. A quick description of the troops that fought alongside the Legions.
They would have equal numbers of youthful javelinmen fighting with them. An important source of quality light troops. The Romans made full use of them whenever possible. They provided scutarii who were armed with heavy javelins and large shield hence the name , nimble fleet footed javelinmen called caetratii, superb slingers from the Balearic Islands and cavalrymen who were equipped very like the scutarii and were a match for the Gallic cavalrymen. This piece only scratches the surface of this period and I would recommend if you have any interest whatsoever you read at least the first of the sources I have used.
Caesar, The Commentaries. Tacitus, Agricola. Barker, Armies and Enemies of Imperial Rome. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army. Warry, Warfare in the Classical World. Exclusions apply. Stopping at a Viking village port to restock on supplies, he finds himself unwittingly embroiled in a quest to banish a mysterious threat in a distant Viking land.
During the reign of the Vikings, Kainan, a man from a far-off world, crash lands on Earth, bringing with him an alien predator known as the Moorwen. Though both man and monster are seeking revenge for violence committed against them, Kainan leads the alliance to kill the Moorwen by fusing his advanced technology with the Viking's Iron Age weaponry. Fourteenth century knights transport a suspected witch to a monastery, where monks deduce her powers could be the source of the Black Plague.
Awaking from a coma to discover his wife has been killed in a car accident, Ben's world may as well have come to an end. A few weeks later, Ben's out of hospital and, attempting to start a Arn, the son of a high-ranking Swedish nobleman is educated in a monastery and sent to the Holy Land as a knight templar to do penance for a forbidden love.
Give Me Back My Legions!
In 12th century England, Robin and his band of marauders confront corruption in a local village and lead an uprising against the crown that will forever alter the balance of world power. Circa A. Mira was born in a warrior-family in Kerala, India, was well versed in martial arts and self-defense, so much so that she was recruited by the Spanish royalty and re-located to Constantinople. From there she was instructed to assist Roman Commander Aurelius to plan the escape of year old Romulus Augustus Caesar from a prison in Capri after his parents had been killed by the leader of the Alliance in turmoil-stricken Rome that has seen the deaths of five emperors in five years.
Mira, Aurelius, and a Priest, Ambrosinius, along with a handful of loyal soldiers were successful in the escape plan and deliver Romulus to Roman Senator Nestor. What the crew do not realize is that their task is not over yet, for Nestor is all set to betray Romulus, leaving them with no alternative but to flee to Britannia, where they will be forced to confront a seemingly invincible Vortygn, whose main aim is to obtain a powerful sword that was meant for defense and defeat, and also ensure Written by rAjOo gunwanti hotmail.
Well, it really wasn't either, although I did find it entertaining. I must not have read the description carefully enough. No matter; overall, it was fun but just a little too silly. I'm beginning to wonder about the discernment of some of these actors, how they can play such intelligent roles for a film or two and then revert to something like this.
Anyway, the story is really a Roman empire one, not a King Arthur story. We only see the tie-in to the later in the last few minutes of the film, in the epilogue. This action story is all about the last Caesar, a small boy, and the last legion that fought as Rome had now been taken over by the Goths.
The Roman Empire had come to an end. Mixed in with that tale was the famous "excalibur" sword. We see the origins of that and how it eventually got into the hands of King Arthur. But, once again, that is only explained in the final minutes. However, the sword is used by the good Roman general who protects the last Caesar from the Goths, who want him imprisoned for life, or killed. What made the story interesting, at least for me, was the chase-scene type atmosphere of a small band of heroes protecting a little boy, fleeing the bloodthirsty Goths until they could mount some sort of counter-attack in the north in Brittania.
That, and the pretty computer-generated scenery and action stunts, kept it interesting. However, don't look for credibility in those action scenes and expect the typical political-correctness of today i.
https://tricentontimel.tk Some parts of this will leave you shaking your head in disbelief. You will feel you're watching a kids' film at times. However, if you want an hour-and-a-half of decent escapist fare, and can put your brain on hold for that time, it fits the bill and will at least entertain you. The day on which they were first approved and took the oath required the truth of their origin from them. The army provided little social mobility, and it took a very long time to complete your service; further, you would probably serve abroad, and whilst the pay was not bad, it was nothing special, and many deductions were made from it for food and clothing RMR, 68, papyrus, Egypt , CE 81 shows so and there were very harsh disciplinary orders.
However, at the same time, the army provided a guaranteed supply of food, doctors, and pay, and it also provided stability. Whilst the pay was not brilliant, it could be supplemented by personal war booty, pay from emperors normally in their will , also, there was the possibility to progress through the ranks which had clear monetary benefits.
The average centurion got 18 times the pay of the standard soldier, 13, denarii, and centurions of the first cohort got 27,, whilst the primi ordines got 54, Because of this later stability and settlement, many army bases incorporated baths and amphitheatres, so the army clearly did have its advantages. However, it was not until Septimius Severus that standard soldiers could legally marry during service not that this had stopped unofficial marriages beforehand, and furthermore, centurions were allowed to marry beforehand.
Likewise, soldiers could also own slaves. Tacitus Hist. Whilst Dionysus and Plutarch do not mention the introduction of maniples per se , they do talk of tactical and equipment changes that would be in line with changes that a change to maniples would require. Livy describes how a manipular formation was presented in battle:.
This front line in the battle contained the flower of the young men who were growing ripe for service. Behind these came a line of the same number of maniples, made up of men of a more stalwart age; these were called the principes; they carried oblong shields and were the most showily armed of all. This body of thirty maniples they called antepilani, because behind the standards there were again stationed other fifteen companies, each of which had three sections, the first section in every company being known as pilus. The first banner led the triarii, veteran soldiers of proven valour; the second banner the rorarii, younger and less distinguished men; the third banner the accensi, who were the least dependable, and were, for that reason, assigned to the rear most line….
The standard force of the Roman imperial army was the legions, a heavy infantry, initially composed of Roman citizens, but it was organised very differently to the manipular army. The number of legions in existence at one time often varied, but a rough average is The make-up of each Legion was as follows:. The Legions were later supplemented by the auxiliaries, who were normally non-citizens, and combined cavalry and infantry.
There were four main forms of auxiliary force:. Alae quingenariae ; one ala of 16 turma ; one turma of 30 men; men.